There are two types of phimosis: physiologic and pathologic. Physiologic phimosis is a normal condition that occurs in newborns and young children, where the foreskin is attached to the glans and gradually becomes retractable over time. This usually resolves on its own by the age of five. Pathologic phimosis, on the other hand, occurs when the foreskin cannot be retracted due to scarring or inflammation.

Undescended Testes

Undescended testes are a common condition, affecting about 1 in 100 male newborns. The condition is more common in premature infants, with up to 30% of premature male infants having undescended testes.

Torsion testis
Torsion testis, also known as testicular torsion, is a medical condition that occurs when the testicle rotates on the spermatic cord, which carries blood to and from the testicle. This twisting can cause a blockage in blood flow, leading to severe pain and potentially permanent damage to the testicle.
Hypospadias / Epispadias

Hypospadias is a congenital condition where the opening of the urethra in males is located on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip. This can cause difficulty with urination, sexual intercourse, and may also affect the appearance of the penis.


PUJ obstruction
PUJ obstruction, also known as pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction, is a condition where there is a partial or complete blockage at the point where the kidney and ureter meet. This blockage can cause urine to accumulate in the kidney, leading to pain, infection, and damage to the kidney tissue.