PCNL is typically used to remove kidney stones that are too large to be treated with other minimally invasive procedures, such as shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy. It is also useful in cases where the stones are located in a difficult-to-reach area of the kidney or where the patient has abnormal kidney anatomy that makes other procedures difficult.


HOLEP stands for Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate. It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat an enlarged prostate gland, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Endoscopic Surgery for Stricture Urethra (VIU)

Endoscopic Surgery for Stricture Urethra, also known as visual internal urethrotomy (VIU), is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat urethral strictures. Urethral strictures are narrowing or blockages in the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. VIU involves the use of an endoscope, which is a thin, flexible tube with a camera and light at the end. The endoscope is inserted into the urethra to allow the surgeon to visualize the stricture and perform the surgery.